BEC Study Notes 2
AUD Study Notes 2

FAR Study Notes 2

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FAR - Notes Chapter 2 http://cpacfa.blogspot.com Timing Issues • Revenue from the sales of products or the disposal of assets is recognized on the date of sale • Generally for a sale to take place: delivery of goods and or transfer of title must occur • Revenue that stems from allowing others the use of the entity’s assets (interest rev, royalty rev, rental rev) is recognized with the assets are used Cash xx Unearned royalty xx Unearned royalty xx Earned royalty xx • Revenue from services is recognized in the period the services have been performs and are able to be billed Expenses should be recognized according to the matching principles Matching principle – expenses must be recognized in the same period as revenue Expired costs (expenses) – costs that expire during the period and have no future benefit Unexpired costs (expenses) – should be capitalized and matched against revenue (PPE, depreciation) Franchisor Accounting (Mcdonalds HQ) • The PV of future services (to be performed by the franchisor) should be recorded as unearned revenue. The unearned revenue is recognized once substantial performance has occurred. • Substantial performance means that all of the following have been met 1. Franchisor has no obligation to refund any payment received from franchisee 2. Initial services required of the franchisor have been performed 3. All other conditions of the sale have been met Franchisee accounting • The PV of the amount paid (or to be paid) by a franchisee is recorded as an intangible asset on the B/S and amortized over the expected period of benefit for the franchise • Fees should be reported by the franchisee as an expense and as revenue by the franchisor in the period incurred Expense recognition The cost of intangible assets not required from others should be expenses against income incurred, examples: - Trademarks; goodwill from advertising; the cost of developing, maintaining and restoring goodwill Exception, certain costs associated with intangibles that can be capitalized, examples: - Legal fees in successful defense of the asset (litigation for patents and trademarks); registration or consulting fees; design costs (of a trademark); other direct costs to secure the asset A patent is amortized over the shorter of its estimated life (useful life) or remaining legal life. FASB 142, Test goodwill and adjust for impairments Startup costs – expenses incurred in the formation of a corporation (legal fees) and are considered organizational costs Organizational costs are not capitalized but expensed immediately Capitalize legal and registration fees incurred to obtain an intangible asset Capitalize legal fees incurred in successfully defending intangible assets as future benefit will be derived 1 FAR - Notes Chapter 2 http://cpacfa.blogspot.com When purchasing goodwill, the excess cost over the FMV is goodwill As a general rule, R&D is expensed immediately Exceptions: - Materials and PPE that have alternative future uses; depreciate over the assets useful life, not the life of the R&D project - R&D undertaken on the behalf of others Items not considered R&D - Routine periodic design changes to old products - Marketing research - Quality control testing - Reformulation of a chemical compound Computer software development costs, developed to be sold, leased or licensed • Expense costs incurred until technological feasibility has been established for the product • Capitalized costs incurred after technological feasibility has been established Technological feasibility is established upon the completion of either - A detailed program design - Completion of a working model Annual amortization of capitalized software costs is the greater of: a. Percentage of revenue= total capitalized amount * (current gross revenue for period ÷ total projected gross revenue for product) b. Straight line = total capitalized amount * (1 ÷ estimate of economic life) Computer software developed internally or obtained for internal use only • Expense costs incurred for the preliminary project state and costs incurred for training and maintenance • Capitalize costs incurred after the preliminary project state and for upgrades and enhancements including: - Direct costs of materials, services, employees - Interest costs incurred for project Capitalized costs should be amortized on a straight line basis Begin bal prepaid insurance + payments – expense = ending bal prepaid insurance Beg bal rent receivable + rental revenue – cash collections – writeoffs = end bal rent receivable Beg bal accrued salaries payable + salaries expense – salaries paid = end bal accrued salaries payable Sales revenue = credit sales to revenue ÷ (1 + sales tax rate) Long Term Construction Contracts Completed contract method • Completed contract method recognizes income only on completion or substantial completion of the contract • Applicable overhead and direct costs should be charged to “construction in progress” account (an asset) • Billing and/or cash received should be credited to “advances on construction” in progress account (liability) • Losses should be recognized in full the year they are discovered Losses = contract price – costs incurred – estimated costs to complete Percentage of completion method 2 FAR - Notes Chapter 2 http://cpacfa.blogspot.com • Use this method when collection is assured and - Can reasonably estimate profitability - Provide reliable measure of progress toward completion • Income recognized is the percentage of estimated total. - Incurred costs to date bear to total estimated costs based on the most recent cost information - Example: Contract price is 10mil; estimated costs are 8mil; incurred 2mil of costs; therefore we recognize 2.5mil of revenue = (2/8)*10mil Installment Sales • The installement method is used only when there is no reasonable basis for estimating collectibility. • Revenue is recognized when cash is collected Gross profit = sale – COGS Gross profit % = gross profit ÷ sales Gross profit earned/realized = gross profit % * cash collections Deferred gross profit = gross profit % * installment receivable B/S A/R = A/R – deferred gross profit Deferred gross is a contra asset account so shown on the balance sheet Cost recovery method - no profit is recognized on sale until all costs have been recovered Accounting for Non-monetary Exchanges SFAS No. 153 requires nonmonetary exchanges be classified into two group, resulting in two different acctg rules 1. Those that have “commercial substance” - an exchange has commercial substance is the future cash flows change as a result of the transaction. If the economic position of the two parties changes because of the exchange, then the exchange has commercial substance. 2. Those that lack “commercial substance” Exchanges having commercial substance The FMV of assets given up is assumed to be equal to the fair market value of the assets received Cash given up does not enter into the calculation of gain on an exchange. New Asset xx (FMV) Accum Dep xx (of asset given up) Cash received xx (if any) Loss xx (if any) Old asset xx (at historical cost) Cash given xx (if any) Gain xx (if any) F2-32 & 33 examples Exchanges lacking commercial substance (or when FMV is not determinable) • If no boot (cash) is received, no gain is recognized • If boot is paid, no gain is recognized • If boot is received, gain is recognized - All gain is recognized if boot received equals or is greater than 25% of the total consideration - Recognize a proportional gain if boot received is less than 25%of the total consideration 3 FAR - Notes Chapter 2 http://cpacfa.blogspot.com Recognized gain = total gain * (boot received ÷ total consideration received) Whenever a nonmonetary asset is involuntary converted (fire loss, theft, condemnation) to cash, the entire gain is recognized Partnerships Exact method questions will ask how much should the new partner contribute to have an X% interest in the new partnership? Existing P/S total equity ÷ (1 - % interest desired) = New total P/S equity New total P/S equity – Existing P/S equity = new partner contribution amount Bonus method question will state that the partnership has decided not to recognize goodwill When the new partner pays more than the book value of the interest credit the old owners When the new partner pays less than the book value of the interest credit the new partner New total P/S equity * new partner % interest = book value Book value – amount contributed = bonus Goodwill method question will state that the partnership has decided to recognize goodwill Implied value = new partner contribution * total number of partners including the new partner Goodwill = Implied value – new partnerships total capital accounts Allocate goodwill to existing partners based on profit/loss terms F2-37-39 examples of all three methods Liquidation of a partnership – pg 57 example • Step 1: Liquidate assets • Step 2: Pay creditors (insiders or outsiders); if the liquidation of assets do not cover the costs to pay the creditors, then the losses are split • Step 3: If there is leftover after paying creditors, return capital to partners or split losses • Step 4: If there is anything left, divide profits Financial Reporting and changes prices • • • • Monetary assets and liabilities fixed or denominates in dollars (A/R) In periods of inflation, monetary assets will erode in value, while monetary liabilities will result in gain Non-monetary assets and liabilities will fluctuate with inflation (bonds, inventory) Contra accounts (allowance for doubtful accounts/accumulated dep) are classified based on the related account’s classification Foreign Currency Accounting SFAS 52 FX transactions – transactions with a foreign entity denominated in a foreign currency FX translation – the conversion of F/S of a foreign entity to F/S expressed in the domestic currency Functional currency – currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (usually the local currency or the US dollar) Remeasurement (temporal method) – from 3rd currency to functional currency 4 FAR - Notes Chapter 2 http://cpacfa.blogspot.com Foreign company F/S must be translated/ remeasured to the functional currency of the company Any remeasurment gains/losses are recognized currently in the income statement Translation (current method) – from functional currency to the reporting currency Any unrealized gains/losses are reported in other comprehensive income Remeasurement method (temporal method): US dollars = Functional currency = B/S • Monetary = year end FX rate • Non-monetary = historical FX rate • Plug retained earnings and use that amount as NI I/S • Non balance sheet related items (COGS) = weighted avg • B/S related items (Depreciation, Bond Amortization) = historical FX rate • Equity = historical fx rate • Currency gain/loss = plug - report in net income from continuing operations Translation method: foreign currency = functional currency I/S • Income = weighted avg FX rate • Expenses = weighted avg FX rate • Transfer NI to retained earnings B/S • Assets = Year end FX rate • Liabilities = year end FX rate • Equity = historical fx rate • Retained earnings = calculated NI from translation • Accumulated Translation adjustment = plug - report in other comprehensive income in the PUFE section 5

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